Fat Disorders Glossary
Adipose tissue : connective tissue in which fat is stored containing cells distended by droplets of fat; flab, blubber (informal), adipose tissue, padding, insulation; adipose tissue is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. It is technically composed of roughly only 80% fat; fat in its solitary state exists in the liver and muscles. Adipose tissue is derived from lipoblasts. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Adipose tissue can be white or brown and is an important endocrine organ producing leptin, cytokine TNFa and resistin which are hormones.
Articular: Of or relating to a joint or joints
Arrythmia: any disturbance in the rhythm of the heartbeat, such as skipping a beat, beating too fast or too slowly. Arrhythmias arising in the atria are called atrial or supraventricular (above the ventricles) arrhythmias. Ventricular arrhythmias begin in the ventricles. In general, ventricular arrhythmias caused by heart disease are the most serious.
Asphyxiation: An acute upper airway obstruction is a blockage of the upper airway, which can be in the trachea, voice box (laryngeal), or throat (pharyngeal) areas; killing by depriving of oxygen
Autonomic Nervous System: the part of the nervous system, outside conscious control, that stimulates the cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive and respiratory organs; affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, diameter of the pupils, micturition (urination), and sexual arousal. Whereas most of its actions are involuntary, some, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious mind.
Autosomal-dominant inheritance: a pattern of inheritance of a trait from a gene where you only need to get the abnormal gene from one parent in order for you to inherit the disease. One of the parents may often have the disease. Further, autosomal dominant inheritance means that the gene carrying a mutation is located on one of the autosomes (chromosome pairs 1 through 22). This means that males and females are equally likely to inherit the mutation. “Dominant” means that having a mutation in just one of the two copies of a particular gene is all it takes for a person to have a trait. When a parent has a dominant gene mutation, there is a 50 percent chance that any child he/she has will also inherit the mutation. There are four possible combinations in the children. Two of the four, or 50 percent, have inherited the mutation. The other 50 percent have not inherited the mutation. These four combinations are possible every time a pregnancy occurs between these two individuals. Gender does not matter. The chance is 50/50 for each pregnancy.
An important characteristic of dominant gene mutations is that they can have variable expression. This means that some people have milder or more severe symptoms than others. In addition, which systems of the body the mutation affects can vary as can the age at which the disease starts, even in the same family. Another important characteristic of dominant gene mutations is that in some cases, they can have reduced penetrance. This means that sometimes a person can have a dominant mutation but not show any signs of disease.
Bariatrics: a branch of medicine that deals with the control and treatment of obesity and allied diseases. The field encompasses dieting, exercise and behavioral therapy approaches to weight loss, as well as pharmacotherapy and surgery
Benign: refers to a condition, tumor, or growth that is NOT cancerous; harmless; does not threaten health; has no significant effect. In general, a benign tumor or condition is not harmful. However, this is not always the case. If a benign tumor is big enough, it can press on nearby blood vessels, nerves, or organs, or otherwise cause problems. This is especially true for benign brain tumors.
The opposite of benign is malignant.
Biopsy: There are several different types of biopsies.
A needle (percutaneous) biopsy removes tissue using a hollow tube called a syringe. The surgeon uses the needle to remove the tissue sample. Needle biopsies are often done using a CAT scan, which guides the surgeon to the appropriate area.
An open biopsy is a surgery that uses general anesthesia in a hospital operating room. Closed biopsy uses a much smaller surgical cut than open biopsy and a camera-like instrument is inserted guiding the surgeon to the correct area.
Bronchial: affecting or concerned with the bronchial tubes.
Bronchial tubes: the two tubes which connect your windpipe to your lungs
DNA: an acid in the chromosomes in the centre of the cells of living things. DNA determines the particular structure and functions of every cell and is responsible for hereditary characteristics being passed on from parents to their children. DNA is an abbreviation for `deoxyribonucleic acid’. The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).
Endocrinologist: a specially trained doctor who diagnoses and treats diseases that affect the glands in your endocrine system. Endocrinologists are trained to diagnose and treat hormone imbalances and problems by helping to restore the normal balance of hormones in your system. They take care of many conditions including: diabetes, thyroid diseases, metabolic disorders, over or under production of hormones, menopause, osteoporosis, hypertension, cholesterol (lipid) disorders, infertility, lack of growth (short stature), cancers of the endocrine glands. Endocrinologists also conduct basic research to learn the way glands work, and clinical research to learn the best methods to treat patients with a hormone imbalance. Through research, endocrinologists develop new drugs and treatments for hormone problems.
Endoscope: instrument used in medical operations which consists of a very small camera on a long thin tube which can be put into a person’s body so that the parts inside can be seen
Endoscopic: By means of an endoscope; The following conditions and illnesses are most commonly investigated or diagnosed with an endoscopy: Breathing disorders, Chronic diarrhea, Incontinence, Internal bleeding, Irritable bowel syndrome, Stomach ulcers, and Urinary tract infections. An endoscope can also be used for biopsies and surgeries.
Excision: ablation: surgical removal of a body part or tissue; also known as resection; complete removal of an organ, tumor or tissue as opposed to a biopsy. An “excisional biopsy” (sometimes called a “tumorectomy”) is the removal of a tumor with a minimum of healthy tissue. It is therefore an excision rather than a biopsy.
Fibrosis: the development in an organ of excess fibrous connective tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to a formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. Scarring is confluent fibrosis that obliterates the architecture of the underlying organ or tissue.
Gastrointestinal: means relating to the stomach and intestines; common abbreviation is G.I. Tract; Some diseases are: IBS(irritable bowel syndrome), Functional disorders caused by low fiber diets, lack of exercise, stress, consuming too many dairy products, over use of laxatives, etc.; Constipation; Structural disorders; Hemorrhoids, Fissures, Fistulas, Abscesses and infections; Colon cancer and Polyps, Diverticular disease.
Gene – the basic unit of heredity in a living organism. All living things depend on genes. Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism’s cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. Genes are composed of DNA, a molecule in the memorable shape of a double helix, a spiral ladder. Each rung of the spiral ladder consists of two paired chemicals called bases. There are four types of bases. They are adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). As indicated, each base is symbolized by the first letter of its name: A, T, C, and G. Certain bases always pair together (AT and GC). Different sequences of base pairs form coded messages.
Glucose intolerance: Increased blood glucose levels following a meal (or glucose tolerance test). The degree of glucose elevation can be severe, for example in diabetes, or relatively modest in persons with impaired glucose tolerance, a state of abnormal glucose metabolism between normal and diabetic.
Hypertrophied: (of an organ or body part) excessively enlarged as a result of increased size in the constituent cells; the opposite of atrophied; excessively developed; a considerable increase in the size of an organ or tissue, caused by enlargement of its cellular components; to undergo or cause to undergo hypertrophy
Lipoma: is a growth of fat cells which can be in a thin, fibrous capsule and is usually found just below the skin; a slow-growing, fatty lump that’s most often situated between your skin and the underlying muscle layer. Often easy to identify because it moves readily with slight finger pressure; doughy to touch and usually not tender. You may have more than one lipoma. Lipomas can occur at any age, but they’re most often detected during middle age. A lipoma isn’t cancer and is usually harmless. Treatment generally isn’t necessary, but if the lipoma is in a location that bothers you, is painful or is growing, you may want to have it removed.
Lipomatosis: A disorder characterized by deposits of fat beneath the skin. The origin is uncertain, but it is thought to be genetic; hereditary condition where multiple lipomas are present on the body. Pathology in which fat accumulates in lipomas in the body. Diffuse or regional overgrowth of mature fat; may infiltrate adjacent skeletal muscle.
Liposuction: also known as lipoplasty (“fat modeling”), liposculpture suction lipectomy or simply lipo (“suction-assisted fat removal”) is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat on the human body; a surgical technique that improves the body’s contour by removing excess fat from deposits located between the skin and muscle. Fat removal is accomplished as the suction cannula creates tiny tunnels through the fatty layers. After surgery, these tiny tunnels collapse and thus result in an improved body contour.
Lymph: a clear yellowish, slightly alkaline, coagulable fluid, containing white blood cells in a liquid resembling blood plasma that is derived from the tissues of the body and conveyed to the bloodstream by the lymphatic vessels; lymph circulates freely through the body, bathing cells in needed nutrients and oxygen while it collects harmful materials for disposal. As lymph circulates, it is pulled into the lymphatic system.
Lymphedema: Also known as Lymphatic obstruction. Lymphedema refers to swelling that generally occurs in one of your arms or legs. Although lymphedema tends to affect just one arm or leg, sometimes both arms or both legs may be swollen.
Lymphedema is caused by a blockage in your lymphatic system, an important part of your immune and circulatory systems. The blockage prevents lymph fluid from draining well, and as the fluid builds up, the swelling continues.
There’s no cure for lymphedema, but it can be controlled. Controlling lymphedema involves diligent care of your affected limb.
Lymphatic system: The lymph system is a network of organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph from tissues to the bloodstream. The lymph system is a major component of the body’s immune system. The lymphatic system removes excess fluid, waste, debris, dead blood cells, pathogens, cancer cells, and toxins from these cells and the tissue spaces between them. When the lymphatic system is damaged Lymphedema may result.
Metabolic: of or relating to metabolism; “metabolic rate”; Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur within us (or any living organism). Metabolism consists of anabolism (the buildup of substances) and catabolism (the breakdown of substances).
The term “metabolic” is often used to refer specifically to the breakdown of food and its transformation into energy.
Metabolism: the way that chemical processes in your body cause food to be used in an efficient way, for example to make new cells and to give you energy; In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized. Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism, and each chemical reaction is coordinated with other body functions.
Mitochondria: rod-shaped organelles within a cell, responsible for energy production. Mitochondria also contain a small amount of DNA; Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell. The process of creating cell energy is known as cellular respiration. Most of the chemical reactions involved in cellular respiration happen in the mitochondria. A mitochondrion is shaped perfectly to maximize its efforts. The mitochondria are the only place in the cell where oxygen can be combined with the food molecules. After the oxygen is added, the material can be digested. A mitochondrion may also be involved in controlling the concentration of calcium within the cell.
Morbidly Obese: is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy; defined as being 50-100 percent above one’s ideal body weight, or 100 pounds above one’s ideal body weight; a serious health condition that can interfere with basic physical functions such as breathing or walking. Those who are morbidly obese are at greater risk for illnesses including diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gallstones, osteoarthritis, heart disease, and cancer.
Morph: to transform a shape image or object smoothly from an initial state to a different final state
Neurological: related to the nervous system. Some neurological diseases listed here are: Angiomatosis: a non-neoplastic condition presenting with little knots of capillaries in various organs. It consists of many angiomas; Anoxia: Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia; Ataxia telangiectasia:
is a rare, neurodegenerative, inherited disease that affects many parts of the body and causes severe disability. Ataxia refers to poor coordination and telangiectasia to small dilated blood vessels, both of which are hallmarks of the disease.
Neuropathy: A disease or abnormality of peripheral nerves, the nerves that mediate sensation and movement in the arms, legs, and other body parts. Peripheral neuropathy can be associated with poor nutrition, a number of diseases (including diabetes), and pressure or trauma. Many people suffer from the disorder without ever identifying the cause.
Nodule: a relatively hard, roughly spherical abnormal structure. Nodules are normally benign and often painless, although they can affect the functioning of an organ. A small solid collection of tissue, a nodule is palpable (can be felt). It may range in size from greater than 1.0 cm (3/8 inch) to somewhat less than 2 cm (13/16 inch) in diameter. A nodule may be present in the epidermis, dermis or subcutis (at any level in the skin).
The word “nodule” is the diminutive of “node” (a knot or knob) so a “nodule” means “a little knot or knob.”
Obesity: (BMI 30.0 kg/m2 or greater) Obesity is defined as an excessively high amount of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person’s weight is greater than what’s considered healthy for his or her height.
Pannus: also referred to as a panniculis; the large apron of fat that hangs down from the abdomen in the severely obese, particularly if the person has lost a large amount of fat through diet or gastric bypass surgery. It cannot be dieted or exercised away completely but may be effectively treated with restorative surgery.
Palpation: examine part of the body by touching it; an assessment technique in which the examiner uses the surface of the fingers and hands to feel for abnormalities.
Plantar: Pertaining to the bottom surface of the foot; relating to or occurring on the undersurface of the foot;
Psychosomatic: A physical disease that is thought to be caused, or made worse, by mental factors such as stress and anxiety, eg eczema, stomach ulcers, and high blood pressure. In certain cases, mental factors may cause physical symptoms where no physical disease can be found; of or pertaining to a physical disorder that is caused by or notably influenced by emotional factors; pertaining to or involving both the mind and the body.
Stemmer’s Sign: A diagnostic test that involves tenting (pinching) the skin on the upper surface of the toes. In a negative result, which is characteristic of Lipedema, it is possible to grasp a thin fold of tissue; a diagnostic test that involves pinching the skin on the upper surface of the toes or fingers. In a healthy person, a fold of skin can be pinched and lifted up at the base of the second toe or middle finger. indicating The Stemmer sign is present and is indicative of lymphedema when a skin fold cannot be raised.
Subcutaneous: Subcutaneous means beneath or under all the layers of the skin; The hypodermis, also called the hypoderm, subcutaneous tissue, or superficial fascia is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. The hypodermis is used mainly for fat storage and contains: loosely arranged elastic fibers, fibrous bands anchoring the skin to the deep fascia, fat, blood vessels on route to the dermis, lymphatic vessels on route from dermis, hair follicle roots, the glandular part of some sudiferous glands, nerves: free endings and Pacinian corpuscles; bursae, in the space overlying joints in order to facilitate smooth passage of overlying skin; fine, flat sheets of muscle, in certain locations, including the scalp, face, hand, nipple, and scrotum, called the panniculus carnosus.
Systemic: affecting the whole of something; of or relating to systems or a system; relating to or affecting the entire body or an entire organism: systemic symptoms; a systemic poison; relating to or affecting a particular body system, especially the nervous system: a systemic lesion; of or relating to systemic circulation; another word for systematic.
Trachea: your windpipe; the main trunk of the system of tubes by which air passes to and from the lungs in vertebrates
Tracheal: relating to or resembling or functioning like a trachea
Trait – A distinguishing feature of your personal nature; a genetically determined characteristic or condition; a characteristic feature or quality distinguishing a particular person or thing; traits may be physical, such as hair color or leaf shape, or they may be behavioral, such as nesting in birds and burrowing in rodents. Traits typically result from the combined action of several genes, though some traits are expressed by a single gene.
Vascular: used to describe the channels and veins through which fluids pass in the bodies of animals and plants
Venous: of or pertaining to veins; the venous system; venous blood; deep venous thrombosis, etc.